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Đề cương ôn tập HK1 môn Tiếng Anh 12 năm 2022-2023

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Nhằm phục vụ nhu cầu tham khảo, hệ thống kiến thức cho các em học sinh lớp 12 trước kì thi Học kì 1 sắp đến, HOC247 đã tổng hợp và biên soạn nội dung chi tiết Đề cương ôn tập HK1 môn Tiếng Anh 12 năm 2022-2023. Tài liệu này tóm gọn những kiến thức ngữ pháp trọng tâm kèm theo bài tập từ vựng, ngữ pháp, đọc hiểu, viết, ... được trình bày rõ ràng giúp các em thuận tiện trong việc ôn tập hơn. Chúc các em đạt được thật nhiều điểm 10 trong kì thi sắp tới nhé!

 

 
 

1. Nội dung ôn tập

1.1. Tense Revision

- The simple present tense: S + V-s/es

- The present continuous tense: S + be (is/ are/ am) + V-ing

- The past simple tense: S + V-ed/V2

- The past continuous tense: S + be (was/ were) + V-ing

- The present perfect tense: S + have/ has + V-ed/V3

- The present perfect continuous tense: S + have/ has been + V-ing

- The past perfect tense: S + had + V-ed/V3

- The past perfect continuous tense: S + had been + V-ing

- The simple future tense: S + will + V nguyên mẫu

- The near future: S + be (is/ are/ am) going to + V nguyên mẫu

- The future continuous: S + will + be + V-ing

1.2. Reported Speech

- Cách dùng các động từ trần thuật: say, tell, report, …

- Các nguyên tắc biến đổi từ câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp: Đổi ngôi, đổi thời (thì), đổi các từ chỉ không gian và thời gian.

Lưu ý: Những trường hợp không lùi thời: Động từ ở mệnh đề chính ở thời hiện tại hoặc tương lai (eg: say, have/has said, will say) những cấu trúc giả định không có thực  (wish, if loại 2 và 3, as if, as though, if only), lời trực tiếp diễn tả một chân lý hoặc một tình huống không đổi.

- Câu trần thuật ở dạng câu hỏi: có từ để hỏi (Wh- Qs) và câu hỏi không có từ để hỏi (Yes – No Qs)

- Câu mệnh lệnh và câu yêu cầu ( orders and requests), câu có chức năng ngôn ngữ (lời mời, đe dọa, cảnh báo…)

1.3. Passive Voice

- Quy tắc chuyển câu chủ động sang bị động và ngược lại.

Nội động từ và ngoại động từ.

- Cấu trúc bị động ở các thời cơ bản, động từ khuyết thiếu.

- Một số dạng câu bị động khác: bị động sai khiến, bị động của động từ chỉ giác quan, bị động động từ chỉ ý kiến (bị động kép), bị động của câu mệnh lênh…

1.4. Conditional Sentences

- Bốn loại câu điều kiện: yêu cầu nắm được cách dùng, cấu trúc mệnh đề phụ chỉ điều kiện và mệnh đề chính.

  • Câu điều kiện loại 1:  [If + thì hiện tại đơn],  [will + động từ nguyên mẫu]
  • Câu điều kiện loại 2:  [If + thì quá khứ đơn],  [would + động từ nguyên mẫu]
  • Câu điều kiện loại 3:  [If + thì quá khứ hoàn thành],  [would + have + V3/V-ed]
  • Câu điều kiện hỗn hợp: If + S + had + Vpp/V-ed, S  + would + V-inf or If + S + V-ed, S  + would/could/might + have + Vpp/V-ed

- Chuyển câu điều kiện sang unless và ngược lại.

- Một số từ/ cụm từ có thể dùng thay cho If trong câu điều kiện: Provided (that), as long as, so long as, suppose, supposing, in case, even if…

- Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện (cả 3 loại)

1.5. Relative Clauses

- Cách dùng đại từ quan hệ và trạng từ quan hệ trong mệnh đề quan hệ: who(m), which, that, whose, why, when, where.

  • Who thay thế cho từ chỉ người đứng trước nó và làm chủ từ trong mệnh đề liên hệ
  • Whom thay thế cho từ chỉ người đứng trước nó và làm túc từ trong mệnh đề phụ.
  • Which có thể làm chủ ngữ hoặc túc từ trong mệnh đề liên hệ.
  • Who, whom, which có thể thay thế bằng THAT để làm chủ từ hoặc túc từ trong mệnh đề liên hệ.

- Trường hợp có thể bỏ được đại từ quan hệ (omitted relative pronouns)

- Phân loại mệnh đề quan hệ: xác định (defining relative clause) và không xác định (non-defining relative clause)

  • Mệnh đề xác định (defining) là mệnh đề cần thiết để làm rõ nghĩa danh từ đứng trước nó. Mệnh đề này không có dấu phảy trước và sau nó.
  • Mệnh đề không xác định (non-defining) là mệnh đề không cần thiết phải có để làm chức năng giới hạn danh từ đứng trước nó, nghĩa là bản thân danh từ trước nó đã rõ. Vì thế mệnh đề này thường dùng sau danh từ riêng, sở hữu tính từ hoặc các tính từ chỉ định (phải có dấu phẩy ở trước và sau mệnh đề).

- Giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

- Dạng rút gọn của mệnh đề quan hệ

- Những trường hợp không được dùng THAT và những trường hợp bắt buộc dùng THAT

- WHICH với tư cách là từ nối (connector) thay thế cho cả một mệnh đề đứng đằng trước nó.

1.6. Concession: (al)though, even though

- Mệnh đề chỉ sự tương phản: (al)though, even though, even if, no matter, whatever, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that...

- Cụm từ chỉ sự tương phản: in spite of, despite, due to, ...

2. Bài tập ôn tập

Exercise 1: Choose the best answer for the following sentences

1. My mother is a _______woman. She does all the household chores to make us more comfortable.

A. caring                    B. careless                 C. harmful                 D. boring

2. Whenever problems come up, we discuss frankly and find _______quickly.

A. solve                     B. solution                    C. solved                    D. to solve

3. My family is the base from which we can go into the world with _______.

A. confide                 B. confidence                 C. confident              D. confiding

4. I like doing _______such as cooking, washing and cleaning the house.

A. house-keeper

B. white house

C. lord of house

D. household chores

5. My father is a _______He often does researches with animals and plants.

A. botanist

B. biologist

C. chemist

D. mathematician

6. In my family, both my parents _______to give us a nice house and a happy home.

A. join hands

B. get out

C. shake hands

D. clutch hands

7. Americans believe in _________ marriage whereas the Asians have to suffer _________ one.

A. the Chinese / Italian

B. Roman / the Great Wall

C. romantic / contractual

D. contractual / romantic

8. People from different cultures have different_________ of love and _________.

A. ideas / marry

B. thoughts / marriage

C. speech / divorce 

D. story / wedding

9. Many Indian students agree that a woman has to _________ more in a marriage than a man.

A. suicide

B. sacrifice 

C. die

D. be dead

10. Many Americans pay much attention to physical _________ when choosing a wife or a husband.

A. attraction

B. spirits

C. interests 

D. attractiveness

11. In America, it is _________ to ask questions about age, marriage and income.

A. polite 

B. impolite 

C. enthusiastic 

D. excited

12. In Vietnam, two or more _________ may live in a home.

A. generations

B. generous

C. generation 

D. generators

13. In Vietnam, the bride and the groom often wear _________costumes on their wedding day.

A. traditional                   B. plastic             C. paper-              D. leaf-

14. Someone says that a happy _________ should be based on love.

A. marriage                     B. merry               C. marry               D. marital

15. I haven’t seen such a_________ scene on any other films at all. I like it very much.

A. imitate

B. rat

C. fake

D. romantic

16. Someone believes that happiness is based on _________, love, good health and people’s approvals.

A. money

B. sadness

C. sorrow

D. death

17. We can use _________ and _________ forms of communication to attract one’s attention.

A. silence / noise

B. verbal / non-verbal 

C. verb / adverb 

D. gentle / impolite

18. Probably the most common ways of attracting someone’s attention is by _________.

A. dancing                      B. singing          C. yelling          D. waving

19. We might raise our hand and wave to our friend as a _________ that we see her or him.

A. signature                     B. sign             C. signal             D. sigh

20. There are some social _________ where smaller, non-verbal signals are more appropriate.

A. situations          B. signatures          C. attractions         D. documents

21. Whistling and _________ in a restaurant is considered to be impolite and even rude.

A. talking       B. clapping hands         C. smiling        D. sighing

22. In some special social situations, pointing at someone is completely_________.

A. lovely            B. acceptable              C. gentle          D. formal

23. In some social situations, _________ is allowed to friends.

A. fighting seriously

B. rudeness

C. accurate

D. informality

24. Raising hand and waving are of the _________ form of communication.

A. uncountable                B. countable           C. non-verbal     D. verbal

25. A(n) _________ length of time is the main problem for our trip.

A. reasonable                  B. reason           C. excellent           D. old fashioned

26. There are two _______ school systems in England; i. e. , state school system and public school ones.

A. parallel    B. paragraph        C. paradise      D. pyramid

27. State school system in England is _______ for all students and _______ by the state.

A. free / pays

B. free / paid 

C. fee-paying / paid

D. fee-paid / pays

28. The National _______ is set by the Government and must be followed by in all state schools.

A. Stadium                    B. Curriculum          C. Gallery            D. Circus

29. In English schools, English, Math and Science are_______ subjects.

A. more                          B. store                  C. score        D. core

30. Core subjects in Vietnamese schools_______ of Math, Literature and English.

A. makes for

B. makes of

C. are made up

D. will make by

Exercise 2: Choose the best answer

1. Every day, Sarah _________ her children to school and then _________ home to prepare lunch.

A. takes / will return

B. has taken / returns

C. takes / returns

D. take / has returned

2. The Sun _________ in the East and _________ in the West.

A. rise / set 

B. rose / set 

C. rises / sets 

D. will rise / will set

3. _________ on the computer now?

A. Has Peter worked 

B. Is Peter working 

C. Does Peter work

D. Was Peter working

4. Listen! Mr. John _________ the piano. You _________ so much noise.

A. plays / should not make

B. is playing / should not make

C. was playing / do not make

D. has played / don’t make

5. Since 2003 they _________ their son every year.

A. were visiting

B. visit

C. visited

D. have visited

6. Usually, Mr. Pike_________ us Physics but today he _________ ill, so Mrs. Young teaches us.

A. will teaches / is 

B. taught / was

C. teaches / is

D. has taught / has been

7. I’m sorry I can’t hear what you _________ because everybody _________ so loudly now.

A. have been saying / talks 

B. are saying / is talking

C. will say / has been talk 

D. said / were talking

8. I _________ the same car for more than ten years. I _________ about buying a new one.

A. have had / am thinking

B. had had / was thinking

C. have / will have thought

D. had / would think

9. My best friends and I _________ each other for over fifteen years. We still _________ together once a week.

A. knew / got

B. will know / will get  

C. have known / get 

D. knows /are getting

10. In the nineteenth century, it _________ two or three months to cross North America by covered wagon. The trip _________ very rough and often dangerous.

A. took / was 

B. had taken / had been

C. takes / is

D. will take / will be

11. My grandfather _________ a very exciting life. When he was young, he _________ on the farm in the countryside where there _________ a lot of cattle and meadows.

A. has / lived / were 

B. has / lives / is

C. had / lived / were

D. will have / lives / are

12. The meeting _________ at 7:30A. m tomorrow.

A. was beginning 

B. began

C. will be beginning

D. has begun

13. Tom _________ that he was having a party there in the evening.

A. asks                            B. said                             C. says           D. told

14. The last time I saw Jonathan, he looked very relaxed. He explained that he’d been on holiday the _______week.

A. ago                             B. following                    C. next            D. previous

15. I wonder _________ the tickets are on sale or not.

A. that                             B. when                           C. where        D. whether

16. Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I advised her _________.

A. no worry                     B. not worry                    C. no to worry    D. not to worry

17. Judy _________ going for a walk, but no one else wanted to.

A. admitted                     B. offered                       C. promised         D. suggested

18. Jack asked me _________.

A. where do you come from

B. where I come from

C. where I came from

D. where did I come from

19. She asked me _________ I liked music.

A. who                            B. if                                 C. while             D. what

20. I said that I had met her _________.

A. yesterday

B. the previous day

C. the day

D. the before day

Exercise 3: Choose the underlined part that needs correction

1. The phone rung while I was washing the dishes.

2. Has the letters which I want been typed yet?

3. Since they study in the same primary school, they have known each other.

4. After George had returned to his househe was reading a book.

5. The doctor called this morning while you slept.

6. Unless you don’t know how to do this exercise, you can ask me.

7. She says that she would have to close the shop unless business improves.

8. He has just read “The Old Man and The Sea”, a novel writing by Ernest Hemingway.

9. They asked me how long did it take to get to Paris by train.

10. My mother told me to watch the milk and don't let it boil over.

11. The manager sent on his new striker, whose scored a brilliant goal.

12. No one has said anything would persuade me to change my mind.

13. Helen Keller, who was both blind and deafnessovercame her inabilities with the help of her teacher, Ann Sullivan. 

14. Lake Superior, that lies on the US Canadian border, is the largest lake in North America.

Exercise 4: Read the following passage and blacken the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

We can communicate not only true words but also through body language. Body language concludes our posture, facial expressions and gestures. Because body language is so important you will want to know what yours is saying and how to interpret other people, too. Here are some examples of body language and its meaning. If you posture is slumped and your head is down, this could mean that you are sad or you lack confidence. If your posture is straight but relaxed, you are expressing confidence and friendliness. A smile is a sign of friendliness and interest. But people sometimes smile just to be polite. To get another clue from people's faces, notice their eyes. Friendliness and interest are expressed when a person's eyes meet yours and then look away and meet yours again. A person who doesn't look away is expressing a challenge. A person who doesn't look at you is expressing lack of interest or shyness. Hand gestures can mean a person is interested in the conversation. But repeated movements- like tapping a pencil or tapping a foot- often mean the person is either impatient or nervous. Stay away from someone who points at you while talking with you: that person might be angry at you or feel superior to you.

1. Which of the options is NOT body language?

A. posture

B. words

C. gestures

D. facial expressions

2. According to the writer, if you want to express your confidence, you should ________.

A. smile

B. look away

C. stand straight but relaxingly

D. Tap your foot repeatedly

3. If someone wants to express their friendliness to you, they usually ________.

A. look at your face all time

B. look at your eyes now and again

C. look away from your eyes

D. look at your face now and again

4. A person making repeated movements like tapping a pencil often means to be ________.

A. shy or nervous

B. impatient or angry

C. impatient or shy

D. impatient or nervous

Exercise 5: Rewrite the following sentences as directed

1. “I’ve seen this film three times, Mary,” said George.

George told Mary ___________.

2. "Where did you spend your holidays last year?" she asked me.

 She asked me ___________.

3. 'You mustn't drink too much caffeine.'

 Marta warned me ___________.

4. “How many students are there in your class?”

The man asked me ___________.

5. 'It was nice of you to invite me to your birthday party. Thanks very much.’

Mike thanked me ___________.

....

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3. Đáp án

Exercise 1:

1A; 2B; 3B; 4D; 5B; 6A; 7C; 8B; 9B; 10D; 11B; 12A; 13A; 14A; 15D; 16A; 17B; 18D; 19C; 20A; 21B; 22B; 23D; 24C; 25A; 26A; 27B; 28B; 29D; 30C

Exercise 2:

1C; 2C; 3B; 4B; 5D; 6C; 7B; 8A; 9C; 10A; 11A; 12C; 13B; 14D; 15D; 16D; 17D; 18C; 19B; 20B

Exercise 3:

1B; 2A; 3A; 4C; 5D; 6A; 7A; 8C; 9B; 10C; 11B; 12C; 13B; 14A

Exercise 4:

1B; 2C; 3B; 4D

Exercise 5:

1. “I’ve seen this film three times, Mary,” said George.

George told Mary (that) he had seen that film three times.

2. "Where did you spend your holidays last year?" she asked me.

 She asked me where I had spent my holiday the year before.

3. 'You mustn't drink too much caffeine.'

 Marta warned me against drinking too much coffee.

4. “How many students are there in your class?”

The man asked me how many students there were in my class.

5. 'It was nice of you to invite me to your birthday party. Thanks very much.’

Mike thanked me for inviting him to my birthday party.

Exercise 6:

1. The school is smaller than mine. My sister is working there. (Use relative clause)

The school where my sister is working here is smaller than mine.

2. Do you know that lady? I repaired her car. (Use relative clause)

Do you know that lady, whose car I repaired?

3.  Some people drive drunk. I never travel with them. (Use Preposition + Relative Pronouns)

Some people with whom I never travel drive drunk.

4. They wanted to see the man who owns this restaurant. (Use reduced relative clause)

They wanted to see the man owning this restaurant

5. He is the first boy that passed this shop. (Use reduced relative clause)

He is the first boy to pass this shop.

Exercise 7: 

1. I can’t apply for that job because I don’t know English.

 If ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­I knew English, I could apply for that job.

2. Unless he phones her immediately, he won’t get any information.

If he doesn’t phone her immediately, he won’t get any information.

3. Unless you save some money, you will never be able to buy a car.

If you don’t save some money, you will never be able to buy a car.

4. I didn’t have an umbrella with me, so I got wet.

If I had had an umbrella with me, I wouldn’t have got wet.

5. Stop talking or you won’t understand the lesson.

If you don’t stop talking, you won’t understand the lesson.

Exercise 8: 

1. Did Henry write that book years ago  ?

Was that book written by Henry years ago?

2. No one has opened that box for the past hundred years.

That box hasn’t been opened for the past hundred years.

3. People thought that the cover was made of iron.

It was said that the cover was made of iron.

The cover was said to have made of iron.

4. People believe that he died in the war.

He is believed to have died in the war.

5. They say that John is the brightest student in class.

John is said to be the brightest student in class.

Exercise 9:

1. They bought this house ten years ago.

 They have had this house for ten years.

2. I last saw Bob two years ago.

 I haven’t seen Bob for two years.

3. I have never been to this shop before.

This is the first time I have been to this shop.

4. She bought that house in 1994.

She has had that house since 1994.

She has lived in that house for 21 years.

5. Lan began studying English ten years ago.

Lan has studied English for 10 years.

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