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PHÂN BIỆT SO, SUCH, ENOUGH, TOO TRONG TIẾNG ANH
1. Lý thuyết
1.1. Cấu trúc so….that…. (quá ... đến nỗi...)
*Dùng với tính từ: S + be+ so + adj + that + S + V
Ví dụ: It was so dark that I couldn’t see anything. (Trời quá tối đến nỗi tôi không thể nhìn thấy bất kỳ thứ gì.)
*Dùng với trạng từ: S + V + so + adv + that + S + V
Ví dụ: The student had behaved so badly that he was dismissed from the class. (Cậu học sinh kia đã cư xử quá vô lễ đến nỗi cậu ta đã bị đuổi khỏi lớp.)
*Dùng với danh từ số nhiều đếm được:
S + V+ so many/ few + plural/ countable noun + that + S + V
Ví dụ: The Smiths had so many children that they formed their own basketball team. (Gia đình nhà Smith đã có quá nhiều con đến nỗi họ đã thành lập một đội bóng rổ.)
*Dùng với danh từ không đếm được:
S + V + so much/ little + uncountable noun + that + S + V
Ví dụ: He had so much money that he didn’t know what to do with it. (Anh ta có quá nhiều tiền đến nỗi anh ấy không biết làm gì với nó.)
*Dùng với danh từ đếm được số ít:
S + V + so + adj + a/ an + singular noun + that + S + V
Ví dụ: It was so disappointing a result that we didn’t accept. (Đó là một kết quả quá thất vọng đến nỗi chúng tôi không thể chấp nhận được.)
1.2. Cấu trúc such…that…. (quá ... đến nỗi...)
Cấu trúc: S + V + such + (a/an) + adj + noun + that + S + V
Ví dụ: He is such a popular man that everyone knows him. (Anh ta quá nổi tiếng đến nỗi mọi người đều biết anh ấy.)
1.3. Cấu trúc too…to... (quá ... đến nỗi không thể...)
*Dùng với tính từ: S + be + too + adj + (for O) + to_V
Ví dụ: He is too short to play basketball. (Anh ta quá thấp đến nỗi không thể chơi bóng rổ.)
*Dùng với trạng từ: S + V + too + adv + (for O) + to_V
Ví dụ: They spoke too quickly for me to understand. (Họ đã nói quá nhanh đến nỗi tôi không thể hiểu được.)
1.4. Cấu trúc enough...to... (đủ….để làm gì…)
*Dùng với tính từ: S + be + adj + enough + (for O) + to_V
Ví dụ: He isn’t tall enough to play basketball. (Anh ta không đủ cao để chơi bóng rổ.)
*Dùng với trạng từ: S + V + adv + enough + (for O) + to_V
Ví dụ: They spoke slowly enough for me to understand. (Họ đã nói đủ chậm để tôi có thể hiểu được.)
*Dùng với danh từ: S + V + enough + noun + (for O) + to_V
Ví dụ: I have enough time to do this exercise. (Tôi có đủ thời gian để làm bài tập này.)
2. Bài tập
2.1. Use SO or SUCH, TOO, ENOUGH
1. The sun shone _______ brightly that she had to put on her glasses.
2. There were _________ few students registered that the class was cancelled.
3. We had _________ wonderful memories of that place that we decided to return.
4. It was ________ a nice day that we decided to go to the beach.
5. The book looked ___________ interesting that we decided to read it.
6. Ray called at _________ an early hour that we weren’t wake yet.
7. There were ____________ many people on the bus that we decided to walk.
8. The benefit was _________ great a success that the promoters decided to repeat it.
9. I’ m not rich ___________to help you.
10. This room is ___________ dark for us to study.
2.2. Rewrite the following sentences as directed
1. It was such an expensive house that nobody can buy it.
⇒ The house was so ........
2. The food was so good that we ate all of it.
⇒ It was ........
3. The patient was too weak to get up.
⇒ The patient was so ........
4. This room is too dark for me to study.
⇒ This room is so ........
5. This room is too small for us to take the meeting
⇒ This room isn’t ........
6. The test was so difficult that we couldn’t do it.
⇒ The test was not ........
7. The map is so old that I couldn’t read it.
⇒ The map is too ........
8. He spoke so fast that we couldn’t hear him well
⇒ He didn’t ........
2.3. Combine these pairs of sentences using "so……..that"
1. That woman was very tall. She could almost touch the ceiling.
2. This coat is very big. I can't wear it.
3. The coffee was so strong. She couldn't go to sleep.
4. That bag was very heavy. None of us could carry it.
5. The stadium is very large. It can hold 60,000 people.
6. Those lessons are very difficult. He can't understand them.
7. She was very busy. She couldn't do the housework.
8. The climate was very bad. All the plants couldn't grow well.
9. I'm very tired. I couldn't keep my eyes open.
10. That boy is very lazy. He never does his homework.
2.4. Combine these pairs of sentences using "too ....to"
1. The bag was very heavy. She couldn't carry it.
2. He is very old. He can't run.
3. She is very young. She can't go to school.
4. Tom is very short. He can't play volleyball.
5. It's very late. We can't go to the movies.
6. The question was very hard. We couldn't answer it.
7. The TV program is very exciting. The children won't miss it.
8. You're very young. You can't drive that car.
9. She was tired. She didn't go anywhere.
10. These shoes are very small. I can't wear them.
2.5. Combine these pairs of sentences using "such....that"
1. Tom was a tall man. He could almost touch the ceiling.
2. Mary is a good swimmer. She has won two gold medals.
3. He drank strong coffee. He couldn't go to sleep.
4. It was a long walk. The children got tired.
5. He told interesting stories. They all like him.
6. The boy made rapid progress. It surprised everybody.
7. He had a difficult exercise. He couldn't do it.
8. The speaker gave a long talk. Most of the audience felt sleepy.
9. We watched an exciting competition. We didn't want to go home.
10. It was an excellent show. We all enjoyed it.
2.6. Rewrite the sentences using "enough" instead of "too....to"
1. He is too old to wear this colored shirt.
2. She is too weak to carry this box.
3. This pen is too expensive for me to buy.
4. Bill was too stupid to understand what I had said.
5. This bag is too heavy for her to carry.
6. The test was too difficult for them to do.
7. I'm too poor to help you with the money.
8. This book is too dull to read.
9. The room is too dark for us to study.
10. The shelf is too high for her to reach.
2.7. Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using too/enough with infinitive.
1. You are very young. You can't have a front-door key.
2. It is very cold. We can't bathe.
3. Would you be very kind and answer this letter by return?
4. I am rather old. I can't wear that kind of hat.
5. The ladder wasn't very long. It didn't reach the window.
6. He hadn't much money. He couldn't live on it. (Omit it.)
7. He was furious. He couldn't speak.
8. The fire isn't very hot. It won't boil a kettle.
9. Tom was very foolish. He told lies to the police.
10. You are quite thin. You could slip between the bars.
2.8. Rewrite the sentences without changing the meaning
1. The room is so tidy that it took us one hour to clean it.⇒ It is ....
2. The man is so fool that no one took any notice of him.⇒ He is ....
3. The film is so long that they can't broadcast it on one night.⇒ It is .....
4. The books are so interesting that we have read them many times.⇒ They are.....
5. The news was so bad that she burst into tears on hearing it.⇒ It was....
6. The food was so hot that it turned my tongue.⇒ It was.....
7. There is so much rain that we can't go out.⇒ There is such....
8. The boy is so fat that every calls him Stuffy.⇒ He is ....
9. The milk is so excellent that all the children want some more.⇒ It is ....
10. The weather was so warm that they had a walk in the garden.⇒ It was....
3. Đáp án
1. The house was so expensive that nobody can buy.
2. It was such good food that we ate all of.
3. The patient was so weak that he couldn’t get up.
4. This room is so dark that I can’t study.
5. This room isn’t large enough for us to take the meeting.
6. The test was not easy enough for us to do.
7. The map is too young for me to read.
8. He didn’t speak slowly enough for us to hear well.
1. That woman was so tall that she could almost touch the ceiling.
2. This coat is so big that I can't wear.
3. The coffee was so strong that she couldn't go to sleep.
4. That bag was so heavy that none of us could caryfn.
5. The stadium is so large that it can hold 60,000 people.
6. Those lessons are so difficult that he can't understand.
7. She was so busy that she couldn't do the housework.
8. The climate was so bad that all the plants couldn't grow well.
9. I'm so tired that I couldn't keep my eyes open.
10. That boy is so lazy that he never does his homework.
1. The bag was too heavy for her to carry.
2. He is too old to run.
3. She is too young to go to school.
4. Tom is too short to play volleyball.
5. It's too late to go to the movies.
6. The question was too hard for us to answer.
7. The TV program is too exciting for children to miss.
8. You're too young to drive that car.
9. She was too tired to go anywhere.
10. These shoes are too small to wear.
1. Tom was such a tall man that he could almost touch the ceiling.
2. Mary is such a good swimmer that she has won two gold medals.
3. He drank such strong coffee that he couldn't go to sleep.
4. It was such a long walk that the children got tired.
5. He told such interesting stories that they all like him.
6. The boy made such rapid progress that it surprised everybody.
7. He had such a difficult exercise that he couldn't do it.
8. The speaker gave such a long talk that most of the audience felt sleepy.
9. We watched such an exciting competition that we didn't want to go home.
10. It was such an excellent show that we all enjoyed it.
1. He isn’t young enough to wear this colored shirt.
2. She isn’t strong enough to carry this box.
3. This pen isn’t cheap enough for me to buy.
4. Bill wasn’t intelligent enough to understand what I had said.
5. This bag isn’t light enough for her to carry.
6. The test wasn’t easy enough for them to do.
7. I’m not rich enough to help you with the money.
8. This isn’t interesting enough to read.
9. The room isn’t bright enough for us to study.
10. The shelf isn’t short enough for her to reach.
1. too young to have
2. too cold to bathe
3. so kind as to answer/kind enough to answer
4. too old to wear
5. long enough to reach
6. enough money to live on
7. too furious to speak
8. hot enough to boil
9. foolish enough to tell/so foolish as to tell
10. thin enough to slip
1. It is such a tidy room that it took us one hour to clean it.
2. He is such a fool man that no one took any notice of him.
3. It is such a long film that they can't broadcast it on one night.
4. They are such interesting books that we have read them many times.
5. It was such bad news that she burst into tears on hearing it.
6. It was such hot food that it turned my tongue.
7. There is such a lot of rain that we can't go out.
8. He is such a fat boy that every calls him Stuffy.
9. It is such excellent milk that all the children want some more.
10. It was such warm weather that they had a walk in the garden.
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